Manganese is a rare mineral, The body needs it in small quantities, The body stores up to about 20 mg of it in the kidneys, liver, pancreas, and bones. It is necessary for the normal functioning of the brain, nervous system, and many enzyme systems in the body.
What is the role of manganese in the body? (1) (3) (4)
- Manganese improves bone health by taking it with other nutrients such as calcium, zinc, copper, magnesium, and vitamin D, which improves bone density, especially in the elderly.
- Manganese is part of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD). Which is considered one of the most important antioxidants in the body, Which in turn helps combat the negative effects of free radicals, which damage cells and may contribute to aging, heart disease, and some types of cancer.
- Research suggests that manganese helps reduce inflammation, Due to its role as part of the antioxidant superoxide dismutase (SOD), which may be useful as a therapeutic agent for inflammatory disorders, Especially when combined with glucosamine and chondroitin.
- It has a variety of functions that can help regulate blood sugar levels, and low levels of this mineral may negatively affect blood sugar.
- Manganese is a vasodilator, which means it helps dilate veins to efficiently transport blood to tissues such as the brain. Adequate manganese levels in your body may help increase blood flow and reduce the risk of certain health conditions such as strokes.
- Manganese helps activate many enzymes in metabolism and plays a role in a variety of chemical processes in the body
- It helps in digesting and utilizing protein and amino acids, as well as metabolizing cholesterol and carbohydrates.
- Manganese helps the body utilize a number of vitamins, Such as choline, thiamin, and vitamins C and E. It ensures proper liver function.
- in addition to, It acts as a cofactor in development, reproduction, energy production, immune response, and regulation of brain activity.
- Research shows that taking manganese and calcium together may help reduce PMS symptoms such as: Anxiety, cramping, pain, mood swings and even depression.
- Manganese is essential for healthy brain function and is often used to help treat certain neurological disorders. It may also help improve brain function by protecting this organ from damage caused by free radicals and improving cognitive function. in addition to, Manganese can bind to neurotransmitters and stimulate the movement of electrical impulses faster or more efficiently throughout the body. As a result, Brain function may improve.
- Manganese is an essential cofactor for various enzymes, Which means it helps these enzymes work properly in the body.
- It plays a role in the production of thyroid hormone, Since thyroid hormone is a vital hormone, Important for the normal function of the thyroid gland, Which helps maintain proper appetite, metabolism, weight and organ efficiency. As a result, Manganese deficiency can cause or contribute to hypothyroidism, Which may contribute to weight gain and hormonal imbalance.
- It may aid in wound healing through the production of the amino acid proline, which is essential for collagen formation and wound healing in human skin cells.
- Manganese is used therapeutically to correct deficiencies and balance zinc and copper. It is usually taken orally but may be given intravenously (IV) for those with a deficiency.
- The adequate intake (AI) recommendation is 1.8-2.3 mg per day. The tolerable upper intake level (UL) is 11 mg per day for adults 19 years and older.
- Manganese is a heavy metal, Consuming too much of it can be dangerous.
side effects: (1)
- Most individuals who consume manganese from food do not need to worry about overconsumption.
- A healthy person with liver and kidney function should be able to excrete excess dietary manganese. So people with liver or kidney disease should be careful.
- Research has found that those with iron deficiency anemia may absorb more manganese. So، Individuals with this condition should monitor their consumption of this mineral.
- Consuming excess manganese through inhalation, This may happen when welding. Provides health risks. In this case, Manganese bypasses the body’s natural defense mechanisms, The accumulation can cause damage to the lungs, liver, kidneys and central nervous system.
- Prolonged exposure may cause Parkinson’s-like symptoms, such as tremors, slow movement, muscle stiffness, and poor balance.
Manganese toxicity: (3)
There are no reports of reaching toxic levels of manganese from the diet. However, There have been isolated case reports of poisoning that occurred in people who drank water contaminated with unusually high levels of manganese and in industrial mining and welding workers who inhaled excessive amounts of manganese in dust.
Because iron and manganese depend on the same proteins that help them be absorbed, Having low iron stores (eg, anemia) can increase manganese absorption and increase toxicity if there is an excess of manganese.
Manganese toxicity targets the central nervous system. Symptoms include:
- Muscle spasms.
- Decreased hand-eye coordination
- hearing loss.
- Depression, And mood changes.
Manganese deficiency: (2)
Due to the presence of manganese in many foods in our daily diets, Reports of manganese deficiency are rare.
What are the symptoms of deficiency?
A person with manganese deficiency may experience the following symptoms:
- Poor bone growth or skeletal defects
- Slow or weak growth
- Low fertility
- Impaired glucose tolerance, It is a state between normal glucose maintenance and diabetes
- Abnormal metabolism of carbohydrates and fats
People with the following conditions may be at risk for manganese levels falling below ideal:
- Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency (inability to digest food due to a lack of digestive enzymes produced by the pancreas)
- People undergoing dialysis
- Children with Perthes disease (a rare condition where blood flow to the thigh bone is disrupted)
- Children with phenylketonuria (a genetic disorder in which blood levels of phenylalanine are high)
Food sources: (3)
Prepared by: Dalal Edriss